Wednesday, December 3, 2008

Hmar - People and land - Hmarland and Hmar people

The Land:

The Hmars are spread over a fairly large area in North East India. They live mostly in the hills of south Manipur, Mizoram, Cachar, North Cachar, Meghalaya , Tripura. Burma (Myanmar) and Chittagong Hill Tracts. Although these areas are under different administrative set ups, they are geographically connected. In Manipur, the Hmars reside in the southern part, especially in the Churachandpur District and its adjoining areas. These areas, except Tuthaphai (the Khuga Valley/Churachandpur), are hilly. Tuiruong (Barak), Tuivai and Tuithapui (Khuga) are some of the important rivers flowing through the Hmar area. The area is densely forested and is very rich in wildlife. These forests provide a good hunting ground for wild animals. In Mizoram, the Hmar live mostly in the northern area, especially in the Aizawl District. Dense forests, swift running river and streams cover the area. The area is very rich in flora and fauna. Oak, rosewood, sal and bamboo are the common vegetation. Besides, different varieties of orchid are also found. The area is rich in wild life too. In Assam, the Hmars live in the Cachar and North Cachar District. In Meghalaya, the Hmars live mostly in the Juwai District. In Tripura, the Hmars mostly live in and around Darchawi, a village on the Mizoram – Tripura border.

The Hmar inhabited area is generally mountainous cloaked in dripping rainforest. Myriads of different orchids bloom in the tropical forests, which are a home to many wild animals and plants. Much of the land is clad in rain forests, where bamboo, orchid and a huge variety of trees grow. Besides, there are a number of rivulets, streams and rivers in the Hmar inhabited areas.

The equator and the tropic of cancer pass through the Hmar areas. The Hmar thus lived in a sub-tropical belt. The land is fertile and usually wet. Major parts of the land are arable for vegetation. Rice, the Hmar’s chief food crop, is grown throughout the Hmar areas on small farms. These terraced paddies occupy lands that were previously rain forests. However, advanced irrigation and drainage techniques and the introduction of high yielding varieties have not yet reached the Hmar farmers. The farmers depend on the monsoon rainfall. The Hmar inhabited areas received an annual rainfall between two to four hundred centimeters. Heavy rainfall and warm tropical temperatures have produced dense evergreen rainfall. The constant heavy rainfall leaches nutrients from the soil, leaving them low in fertility. Rice is a major crop and a staple food of the Hmar’s diet. Ginger is extensively cultivated. The Hmars in Cachar and Tripura have given up jhumming and have started to grow pineapples and oranges. They grow pineapples in huge quantities and are the supplier of the best quality pineapples in India.

The People:

The Hmars trace their origin to Sinlung, the location of which is still a fluid fact. The Hmars are generally short statured, sturdy, dark haired, brown skinned, known for their bravery and head hunting culture. The Hmars still treasured and garnered their immense traditional arts – folk dances, folk songs, etc. These folk dances and songs represent scenes of adventures, battles or wars, love, victory, celebrations, of their experiences throughout history. Majority of the Hmars are cultivators. With the coming of the Gospel and introduction of western education, majority of the Hmar population are educated. At the same time the Hmar people has shed their old norms and customs and have embraced Christianity since 1910. Today, the Hmars are one of the highly educated tribes, employed by the Government of India in different fields and department of government services.




HMAR CLANS AND SUB-CLANS
*Sub-sub-Clans are ITALICISED

1. AIMUOL

2. BIETE
Betlu
Chongol/Chungngol
Darnei
Fatlei
Hmunhring
Khurbi

Lienate
Nampui
Ngaite
Ngamlai
Puilo
Sawnlien
Tamlo
Tamte
Thienglai
Tlungngurh


3. CHANGSAN

Armei
Chailong/Chaileng
Hranhnieng
Hrawte
Kellu
Ngawithuom
Ngulthuom
Thangngen
Zilchung
Zilhmang

4. CHAWROI
Langkai
Nisatarai
Saithuoi
Tuipai

5. CHAWTHE
Chamte
Chawndang
Chawnfieng
Chawnthik
Halte
Hawnsang/Hawnzawng
Lienhna
Suonhoi
Tamva
Thaman

6. CHAWTHEI
(CHAWNTHEI
)
Hnechawng
Lamthik
Luophul
Neichir

7. CHIRU


8. DARLONG

Biete
Fatlei
Faihriem
Khawhren
Saihmar
Saihriem

Hrangchal
Khuolte
Rante
Tlawmte

Ngurte
Rante
Songate
Fatlei
Thiek
Chongkal
Hmante
Hnamte
Kangbur
Vankal

Zote
Chawrawl
Chonnel
Saite
Siete


9. DARNGAWN
Banzang
Chawnghmunte
Famhoite
Fatlei
Khamchangte
Lamchangte
Sanate
Sinate

Faiheng

Darngawn (Cont.)
Pakhuong
Buongpui
Hranngul
Khelte
Khuongpui

Ruolngul
Shakum
Hauhmawng
Hauhnieng
Kilong

Shonte
Tlau

10. FAIHRIEM
Bapui
Dulien
Khawhrang/Khawhreng
Khawkhieng
Khawlum
Khawral
Saihmar
Saivate
Seiling
Sekong
Thlanghnung
Tuimuol
Tuollai
Tusing

11. HMARLUSEI
Lamthik
Luophul
Hnechawng
Neichir

12. HRANGATE
Hrangate
Hrangdo
Hrangman
Hrangsute

13. HRANGKHAWL
Chawlkha
Dumkher
Penate/Penatu
Phuoitawng

14. KHAWBUNG
Bunglung
Fente
Laising
Muolphei
Pangamte
Pazamte
Phunte
Siersak
Siertlang

Riengsete
Tente

15. KHELTE
Hmaimawk
Lutmang
Singhlu
Sierchuong
Thatsing
Vankeu
Vohang
Vohlu
Zahlei
Zaucha

16. KHIENGTE
Chawngte
Khello
Khupsung
Khupthang
Kumsang
Muolvum
Singbel

17. KHUOLHRING
Chunthang
Khintung
Leidir
Lozum
Lungen/Lungsen
Midang
Milai
Peiltel
Rawlsim
Suokling
Thlaute

18.KOM

19. LAMKANG

20. LANGRAWNG
Bawng
Kaipeng
Muolthuom
Pang

21. LAWITLANG
Chawnsim
Hrangchal
Darasung
Laiasung
Sielasung
Tungte

Parate
Sungate
Suomte
Tlangte
Tlawmte
Varte

22. LEIRI
Neingaite
Pudaite
Puhnuongte
Pulamte
Puruolte
Tlandar

23. LUNGTAU
Infimate
Intoate
Keivom
Lungchuong
Inbuon
Mihriemate
Nungate
Pakhumate
Khumthur
Khumsen

Pasuolate
Sielhnam
Songate
Sunate
Theisiekate
Thlawngate
Tamhrang

24. NEITHAM

(also included under Zote clan)

Chawnhning/Chawnhring
Khawthang
Maubuk
Singphun
Thangleh
Thangngawk
Vaithang

25. NGENTE
Bawlte
Chawnghawi
Dosak
Dothang/Dothlang
Kawngte
Laihring
Lailo
Laitui
Tuolngul/Tuolngun
Zawngte
Zawhte

26. NGURTE
Bangran/Bangrang
Chiluon
Parate
Saingur
Sanate
Pusingathla
Saidangathla

Traite
Zawllien

27. PAUTU
Fuongzal
Senlawn
Singate
Tluongate

28. RAWITE
Aite
Arro
Buite
Hnungte
Pieltu
Sawrte
Seldo/Sehdue

29. SAKECHEP
(SAKECHEK)

Bawmlien
Keiphun
Keiphung
Khawlum
Neibawm
Sungtinpha
Telengsing
Thingphun
Thirau/Thirsu
Vaichei/Vaichai
Zeite

30.THIEK
Amaw
Chalhril
Hmunhring

Athu
Buhril
Chawnnel
Hekte
Chawnghekte
Ralsun

Hmante

Hnamte
Kellaite
Khawzawl
Lalun
Laldau
Saibung

KungateKhangbur
Pakhuomate
Khumsen
Khumthur

Sellate
Tamte
Thilhran
Thilsawng
Thluchung
Tuolte
Tuolawr
Tamlo
Taite
Vankal
Khawbuol
Pangote
Pangulte

Zate

31.VANGSIE
Dosil
Ivang
Theidu/Theiduha
Tlukte
Vanghawi
Zapte

32. ZOTE
Buonsuong
Chawnghau
Chawngvawrtu/ Chawngvar
Chuonkhup
Chawngtuol
Darkhawlai/Darkhawlal
Dawthang
Hrangate/ Hrangzote
Hrangdo
Hrangman
Hrangsite/Hrangsete
Hrangsote
Hriler
Maubuok
Neitham
Chawnhnieng
Singphun

Ngaite
Parate
Pasuolate
Pusiete/ Pusieate
Saiate(Saihmang)
Tlangte/Tlangate
Thangnawk
Vaithang

Source: Hmar.net


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